Apr 27, January How did the Qing, Ottoman, Mughal and Russian dynasties respond to nineteenth-century transformations? The Mughal, Qing, Romanov and Ottoman dynasties all ruled over multi-ethnic agrarian Euraisan empires in the 17th and 18th century. All faced enormous political, economic and social transformations which challenged their rule in the 19th century.
Akbar succeeded to the throne at 13, and started to recapture the remaining territory lost from Babur's empire. By the time of his death in he ruled over most of north, central, and western India. Akbar worked hard to win over the hearts and minds of the Hindu leaders.
While this may well have been for political reasons - he married a Hindu princess and is said to have married several thousand wives for political and diplomatic purposes - it was also a part of his philosophy. Akbar believed that all religions should be tolerated, and that a ruler's duty was to treat all believers equally, whatever their belief.
He established a form of delegated government in which the provincial governors were personally responsible to him for the quality of government in their territory.
Akbar's government machine included many Hindus in positions of responsibility - the governed were allowed to take a major part in the governing. Akbar also ended a tax jizya that had been imposed on non-Muslims.
This discriminatory tax had been much resented, and ending it was a popular move. An innovation was the amount of autonomy he allowed to the provinces. For example, non-Muslims were not forced to obey Islamic law as was the case in many Islamic landsand Hindus were allowed to regulate themselves through their own law and institutions.
Akbar and Godism Akbar took the policy of religious toleration even further by breaking with conventional Islam. The Emperor proclaimed an entirely new state religion of 'God-ism' Din-i-ilahi - a jumble of Islamic, Hindu, Christian and Buddhist teaching with himself as deity.
It never spread beyond his court and died when he did. Fatehpur Sikri was the new capital built by Akbar, as a part of his attempt to absorb other religions into Islam. Fatehpur Sikri is a synthesis of Hindu and Islamic architecture.
Jahangir and Jahan Jahangir Akbar's son, Emperor Jahangir, readopted Islam as the state religion and continued the policy of religious toleration.
His court included large numbers of Indian Hindus, Persian Shi'a and Sufis and members of local heterodox Islamic sects. Jahangir also began building the magnificent monuments and gardens by which the Mughals are chiefly remembered today, importing hundreds of Persian architects to build palaces and create magnificent gardens.
Jahangir's approach was typified by the development of Urdu as the official language of Empire. Urdu uses an Arabic script, but Persian vocabulary and Hindi grammatical structure.
Jahan The architectural achievements of the Mughals peaked between andduring the reign of Jahangir's successor Jahan.
The Taj Mahal marks the apex of the Mughal Empire; it symbolises stability, power and confidence.
The building is a mausoleum built by Jahan for his wife Mumtaz and it has come to symbolise the love between two people. Jahan's selection of white marble and the overall concept and design of the mausoleum give the building great power and majesty.
Jahan brought together fresh ideas in the creation of the Taj. Many of the skilled craftsmen involved in the construction were drawn from the empire. Many also came from other parts of the Islamic world - calligraphers from Shiraz, finial makers from Samrkand, and stone and flower cutters from Bukhara.
As if to confirm it, Jahan had these lines inscribed there: The money Jahan spent on buildings and on various military projects emptied his treasury and he was forced to raise taxes, which aggravated the people of the empire.The Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid Empires were all very powerful empires for several centuries, but all of them declined and broke apart.
But what led to this outcome? All three empires had their unique troubles, but some of the causes were similar. In the Mughal Dynasty Akbar who created a strong central government accepted Muslims,Hindus,Buddhist and Christians.
In the Ottoman Empire boys were converted to Islam and put into military training. The brightest students got special education to become government officials.
The Ottomans broke through Constantinople's impenetrable Theodisian walls with cannons, and conquered much of the Turkish region and eastern Europe . Mughal Empire The Ottoman and Mughal empires were two of the most successful empires to ever come together. However, in their dominance there was many similarities as well as differences.
However, in their dominance there was many similarities as well as differences. One of three great Muslim empires – Ottoman Empire/Safavid Persia One of the “gunpowder” empires Used military force and weapons technology to maintain power.
Compare Russia’s interaction with the West with the interaction of one of the following (Ottoman Empire, China, Tokugawa Japan, Mughal India) with the West Ottoman & Mughal decline/Changes in military tech & world economy- difficulty of basing land empire .