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Carter Glass D — Va.
Steagall D — Ala. Steagall of Alabama who had been in the House for the preceding 17 years. Glass originally introduced his banking reform bill in January It received extensive critiques and comments from bankers, economists, and the Federal Reserve Board. It passed the Senate in Februarybut the House adjourned before coming to a decision.
The Senate passed a version of the Glass bill that would have required commercial banks to eliminate their securities affiliates. Many accounts of the Act identify the Pecora Investigation as important in leading to the Act, particularly its Glass—Steagall provisions, becoming law.
It also includes how the deposit insurance provisions of the bill were very controversial at the time, which almost led to the rejection of the bill once again. The previous Glass Bills before the final revision all had similar goals and brought up the same objectives which were to separate commercial from investment banking, bring more banking activities under Federal Reserve supervision and to allow branch banking.
In May Steagall's addition of allowing state chartered banks to receive federal deposit insurance and shortening the time in which banks needed to eliminate securities affiliates to one year was known as the driving force of what helped the Glass—Steagall act to be signed into law.
Separating commercial and investment banking[ edit ] Main article: Together, they prevented commercial Federal Reserve member banks from: The law gave banks one year after the law was passed on June 16, to decide whether they would be a commercial bank or an investment bank.
Only 10 percent of a commercial bank's income could stem from securities. One exception to this rule was that commercial banks could underwrite government-issued bonds. There were several "loopholes" that regulators and financial firms were able to exploit during the lifetime of Glass—Steagall restrictions.
Aside from the Section 21 prohibition on securities firms taking deposits, neither savings and loans nor state-chartered banks that did not belong to the Federal Reserve System were restricted by Glass—Steagall. Glass—Steagall also did not prevent securities firms from owning such institutions.
While permitting affiliations between securities firms and companies other than Federal Reserve member banks, Glass—Steagall distinguished between what a Federal Reserve member bank could do directly and what an affiliate could do. Whereas a Federal Reserve member bank could not buy, sell, underwrite, or deal in any security except as specifically permitted by Section 16, such a bank could affiliate with a company so long as that company was not "engaged principally" in such activities.
Starting inthe Federal Reserve Board interpreted this to mean a member bank could affiliate with a securities firm so long as that firm was not "engaged principally" in securities activities prohibited for a bank by Section By the time the GLBA repealed the Glass—Steagall affiliation restrictions, the Federal Reserve Board had interpreted this "loophole" in those restrictions to mean a banking company Citigroup, as owner of Citibank could acquire one of the world's largest securities firms Salomon Smith Barney.
By defining commercial banks as banks that take in deposits and make loans and investment banks as banks that underwrite and deal with securities the Glass—Steagall act explained the separation of banks by stating that commercial banks could not deal with securities and investment banks could not own commercial banks or have close connections with them.
With the exception of commercial banks being allowed to underwrite government-issued bonds, commercial banks could only have ten percent of their income come from securities.
The Glass—Steagall Legislation page specifies that only Federal Reserve member banks were affected by the provisions which according to secondary sources the act "applied direct prohibitions to the activities of certain commercial banks".
Decline and repeal[ edit ] Main article: Decline of the Glass—Steagall Act It was not until that the separation of commercial banking and investment banking was considered controversial.
There was a belief that the separation would lead to a healthier financial system. In the s the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency issued aggressive interpretations of Glass—Steagall to permit national banks to engage in certain securities activities.
Although most of these interpretations were overturned by court decisions, by the late s bank regulators began issuing Glass—Steagall interpretations that were upheld by courts and that permitted banks and their affiliates to engage in an increasing variety of securities activities.
Starting in the s banks and non-banks developed financial products that blurred the distinction between banking and securities products, as they increasingly competed with each other.Home GIS Career GIS Applications & Uses – How GIS Is Changing the World GIS Applications & Uses – How GIS Is Changing the World.
Policy Library This facility enables you to search our entire library of current and archived policy wordings, being the only library of its type for the Australian insurance industry.
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