It consists of a word ajaw —a Classic Maya term for "lord" of yet unclear etymology but well-attested in Colonial sources  —and a place name that precedes the word ajaw and functions as an adjective. An expression "Boston lord" would be a perfect English analogy. Of course, an "emblem glyph" is not a "glyph" at all:
Wiltrud Mihatsch Syllabics in Cree and Inuktitut: Signs of identity 1. Introduction At first glance the invention of a syllabic writing system in an environment dominated by alphabetic writing as observed for Cree syllabics, later on adapted for Inuktitut, and the Cherokee syllabary in the 19th century, is rather puzzling.
According to the unidirectional view of the genesis of writing systems cf. Gelbbut see Daniels for a critical discussion syllabic writing systems represent the first step in the creation of phonographical writing, i. Since morpheme boundaries and syllable boundaries often converge depending on the language type, see Daniels Thus, to a naive observer, syllabic writing systems of Native American languages such as Cree, Inuktitut or Cherokee rather seem to point more archaic systems dating back to the pre-Columbian era — and in fact there are a number of myths and studies suggesting ancient origins as discussed below in 7.
The aim of this contribution is to discuss how and why mostly Canadian syllabics, first created for Cree, later adapted for Inuktitut, was invented, and, perhaps more importantly, why it was adopted so quickly by the Native speakers themselves — and why it survives up to the present day by bringing together sociocultural, mediatic and linguistic aspects.
It will be shown that monocausal analyses cannot give satisfactory answers to these questions and only an attempt to take into account intrinsic properties of the graphic system, technical requirements, the communicative needs of those adopting the system as well as sociolinguistic factors will help us understand this intriguing phenomenon.
Pre-Columbian systems of graphic representation It is hard to imagine highly developed, complex and huge empires such as the Inca, Maya or Aztec Empires without some way of preserving ancient knowledge, religious traditions as well as writing down organizational issues such as taxation or demography.
And indeed these cultures, but also less centralized ones, did have their own systems of graphic representation Haarmann For instance the Incas used quipu, an intricate symbolic system of knots representing statistical information. The Aztecs represented historical events in their pictographic codexes, Algonkin people used sequences of images or Wampum belts showing abstract symbols as mnemonic aids for speeches or in order to record past events also see Murray However, these techniques cannot be regarded as proper writing in the sense that they do not show any fixed relation between graphic symbols and linguistic units, be they words, morphemes, syllables or phonemes see Coulmas Semejan mucho a los jeroglifos de Egipto,1 mas no encubren tanto el sentido a lo que oigo, aunque debe ni puede ser menos.
Historia natural y moral de las Indias, in Serna f.
In New Spain there are only certain figures that are used as letters, with which they write down and understand everything, and they preserve memories and ancient history.
They resemble the Egyptian hieroglyphs a lotbut do not contain the sense to such a degree, as far as I have heard, although it should and could not be less than that. Only in the second half of the 20th century did researchers find out that the Mayans in fact had a true writing system Daniels The reason for its late discovery is the high complexity of the writing system combining logographic, syllabic and alphabetic elements and a high degree of redundancy.
Similarly Epi-Olmec and Aztec writing seem to be logographic with some rebus elements Macri The Aztec and Mayan systems are the only proper Native American writing systems known up to date.
In the areas that concern us here, namely the Northeast of the United States and the Eastern Provinces of Canada, indigenous people had their own means of graphic representation dating back to the pre-Columbian era. They had a variety of systems serving as mnemonic aids as well as cursory means of communication such as trail signs made of objects, particularly important for communication in the mostly nomadic tribes, but no system of writing in the proper sense Vazeilles European writing arrived in the 17th century in the Northeast of North America.
In the Northeast Algonquian tribes had the first enduring contacts with Europeans, notably via missions Mithun To many indigenous people writing came as a surprise or even as a shock cf. Sagard experienced the following incident in in New France: On his way back to Quebec, when he and his Huron companions discovered that one of their canoes was leaky, he sent a note to his colleague back in the village asking him to send a fresh canoe.
They said that that little paper had spoken to my brother and had told him all the words I had uttered to them there, and that we were greater than all mankind.Kaufman, Terrence, and John S.
Justeson Epi-Olmec Hieroglyphic Writing and Texts. Austin: Texas Workshop Foundation. Epi-Olmec. In: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages, edited . The decipherment of the Olmec writing of ancient Mexico provides us with keen insight into the world of the Olmec.
These earliest text written in America Epi-Olmec Writing &l t;/ B> The some of the Olmec people may have come from Africa. Winters (, Hieroglyphic Writing.
There are two forms of Olmec hieroglyphic writing: the pure. Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online.
Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuu’s. There are also well-documented later hieroglyphs known as "Epi-Olmec", and while there are some who believe that Epi-Olmec may represent a transitional script between an earlier Olmec writing system and Mayan writing, the matter remains unsettled.
Houston, Stephen, and Michael Coe Has Isthmian Writing Been Deciphered, Justeson, John S. and Terrence Kaufman, A Decipherment of Epi-Olmec Hieroglyphic Writing in Science, Vol,19 March , pp.
– Syllabics in Cree and Inuktitut: Signs of identity 1. Introduction At first glance the invention of a syllabic writing system in an environment dominated by alphabetic writing as observed for Cree syllabics, later on adapted for Inuktitut, and the Cherokee syllabary in the 19th century, is rather puzzling.