Share on Facebook One of the most significant issues 21st century businesses will face is the differences that exist in multicultural societies. Each culture has its own understanding of ethical behavior, and different cultural standards may apply in the marketplace. Successful businesses have traditionally focused their energy on marketing strategy, product development and pricing. The new realities of the 21st century marketplace will force businesses to make allowance in all their operations for both a diverse workforce, and a diverse customer base.
July In an anonymous article, a Japanese writer describes United States negotiators as hard to understand. One of the reasons for this, we are told, is because How does organizational culture affect ethics in a negotiation Japanese, the Americans are not racially or culturally homogenous.
These generalizations are helpful to the extent that the reader remembers that they are only guides, not recipes. Any generalization holds true or not depending on many contextual factors including time, setting, situation, stakes, history between the parties, nature of the issue, individual preferences, interpersonal dynamics and mood.
Any generalization will apply to some members of a group some of the time. This is best seen by considering generalizations about groups to which you belong. If you hear that women or men tend to negotiate in this way, or Americans in another way, what effect does it have on you as a member of these groups?
If you want to answer, "Actually, it depends," you are among the majority, for most of us resist easy categorization and broad classifications.
At the same time, it can be useful to back up and attempt to see ourselves and others from a distance so that the patterns and habits that define what is "normal" in negotiation can be examined for what they are: In this essay, some generalizations about cultural and national approaches to negotiation will be outlined.
These may help negotiators and mediators prepare for negotiations by raising the kinds of differences that occur across cultures, and pointing out possible pitfalls of lack of attention to cultural factors.
They should be taken as a series of starting points rather than definitive descriptions, since cultural groups are too diverse and changing contexts too influential to be described reliably. Before outlining these generalizations, a caveat: A Japanese idea of assertiveness that included avoidance as an adaptive and appropriate strategy could be easily missed, labeled as unassertive because of cultural assumptions about the natures of assertion and avoidance.
The reader will note that national culture does not determine negotiation organizational culture, What happens to them at the negotiation table will affect. Because of differences in culture, personality, or both, business persons appear to approach deal making with one of two basic attitudes: that a negotiation is either a process in which both can gain (win-win) or a struggle in which, of necessity, one side wins and the other side loses (win-lose). Recognizing Organizational Culture in to embrace change when the organization’s culture is aligned with the negotiation capability in.
Because of the lack of good studies that take an intercultural approach using a variety of starting points and currencies in developing the research itself and a multicultural team to carry it outthe generalizations that follow are limited.
More research is being done on culture-specific approaches by insiders of various non-Western cultures, and some intercultural research is also being conducted -- these should be carefully examined as they become available. Cultural Approaches to Negotiation In this section, various ways of analyzing cultural differences will be discussed as they relate to negotiation.
The analytical tools come from the work of several well-known intercultural experts, including Hofstede, Hall, Kluckholn, Strodtbeck, and Carbaugh.
As negotiators understand that their counterparts may be seeing things very differently, they will be less likely to make negative judgments and more likely to make progress in negotiations.
Time Orientations Two different orientations to time exist across the world: Monochronic approaches to time are linear, sequential and involve focusing on one thing at a time. These approaches are most common in the European-influenced cultures of the United States, Germany, Switzerland, and Scandinavia.
Japanese people also tend toward this end of the time continuum. Polychronic orientations to time involve simultaneous occurrences of many things and the involvement of many people.
The time it takes to complete an interaction is elastic, and more important than any schedule. This orientation is most common in Mediterranean and Latin cultures including France, Italy, Greece, and Mexico, as well as some Eastern and African cultures.
Negotiators from polychronic cultures tend to start and end meetings at flexible times, take breaks when it seems appropriate, be comfortable with a high flow of information, expect to read each others' thoughts and minds, sometimes overlap talk, view start times as flexible and not take lateness personally.
Negotiators from monochronic cultures tend to prefer prompt beginnings and endings, schedule breaks, deal with one agenda item at a time, rely on specific, detailed, and explicit communication, prefer to talk in sequence, view lateness as devaluing or evidence of lack of respect. Another dimension of time relevant to negotiations is the focus on past, present, or future.
The United States, he indicates, tends to be oriented to the present and the near-future.
Latin America leans toward both present and past orientations. As detailed in other essays, indigenous people in North America combine a past- and future-oriented approach to time that stretches seven generations forward and back.
Negotiators focused on the present should be mindful that others may see the past or the distant future as part of the present. Negotiators for whom time stretches into the past or the future may need to remember that a present orientation can bring about needed change.
Space Orientations Space orientations differ across cultures.
They have to do with territory, divisions between private and public, comfortable personal distance, comfort or lack of comfort with physical touch and contact, and expectations about where and how contact will take place. In Northern European countries, personal space is much larger than in Southern European countries.
For a German or a Swedish person, for example, the Italians or the Greeks get too close. An American etiquette manual advises this about personal space: Remember the angry expression, "Stay out of my face!Ethical Negotiations: 10 Tips to Ensure Win-Win Outcomes What is the role of ethics in negotiation?
The dictionary definition of ethics is: "a system of moral principles or values; the rules or standards governing the conduct of the members of a profession; accepted principles of right or wrong." stick it in a jewelry box and put a bow.
How Does Organizational Culture Affect Ethics In A Negotiation How Does Diversity Affects our Corporate Culture (A Report for Worldwide Telecommunications, Inc.) COMM/ June 25, Worldwide Telecommunications, Inc.
can expect to see a continued increase in workplace diversity over the next few years, and should be prepared and equipped for what that means for the company. One of the most significant issues 21st century businesses will face is the differences that exist in multicultural societies.
Each culture has its own understanding of ethical behavior, and different cultural standards may apply in the marketplace. The Negotiation process and the impact of culture. would affect cross-cultural negotiation due to How does organizational culture impact ethics in a.
Negotiation is commonly defined as a decision-making process by which two or more people or groups agree on how to allocate scarce resources.
Negotiations do not occur in a vacuum. Rather, the organizations in which negotiations occur play an important . Cultural Differences in Negotiations and Conflicts. Globalization and Organizational Culture Cultural Differences in Negotiations and Conflicts Related.