Abstract This article is a following up article to "Videoconferencing technology in lectures and tutoring" and "The role of the students in the age of technology". With the rapid technological developments during the last few years, new methods and areas of utilisation have emerged in the field of higher education. As a result of this, new knowledge and experience can be disseminated and can contribute to an overall increase in quality and general level of knowledge.
What do we know about successful pedagogical strategies utilizing ICTs for teaching and learning? What is known about effective teacher professional development? What do we know about the impact of ICTs on teacher performance?
What do we know about the impact of ICTs on teacher motivation? Through business programs and early stage financingwe help developing countries in the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia go green and develop solutions to local problems. In the past, infoDev worked with ICT and education.
While our programs do support some entrepreneurs and start-ups that develop educational technologies like Afroes and ListenMiICT and education are no longer the focus of our mission.
Role of the teacher Teachers remain central to the learning process A shift in the role of a teacher utilizing ICTs to that of a facilitator does not obviate the need for teachers to serve as leaders in the classroom; traditional teacher leadership skills and practices are still important especially those related to lesson planning, preparation, and follow-up.
Lesson planning is crucial when using ICTs Teacher lesson planning is vital when using ICTs; where little planning has occurred, research shows that student work is often unfocused and can result in lower attainment. Pedagogy Introducing technology alone will not change the teaching and learning process The existence of ICTs does not transform teacher practices in and of itself.
However, ICTs can enable teachers to transform their teacher practices, given a set of enabling conditions. ICTs are seen as important tools to enable and support the move from traditional 'teacher-centric' teaching styles to more 'learner-centric' methods.
ICTs can be used to reinforce existing pedagogical practices as well as to change the way teachers and students interact. Using ICTs as tools for information presentation is of mixed effectiveness The use of ICTs as presentation tools through overhead and LCD projectors, television, electronic whiteboards, guided "web-tours", where students simultaneously view the same resources on computer screens is seen to be of mixed effectiveness.
While it may promote class understanding of and discussion about difficult concepts especially through the display of simulationssuch uses of ICTs can re-enforce traditional pedagogical practices and divert focus from the content of what is being discussed or displayed to the tool being utilized.
Teacher technical abilities and knowledge of ICTs Preparing teachers to benefit from ICT use is about more than just technical skills Teacher technical mastery of ICT skills is a not a sufficient precondition for successful integration of ICTs in teaching.
However, the development of appropriate pedagogical practices is seen as more important that technical mastery of ICTs. Few teachers have broad 'expertise' in using ICTs in their teachingEven in the most advanced school in OECD countries, very few teachers typically have a comprehensive knowledge of the wide range of ICT tools and resources.
In OECD countries, the use of ICTs to promote 'computer literacy' is seen as less important than in using ICTs as teaching and learning tools In OECD experience, the use of technology in everyday teaching and learning activities appears to be more important than specific instruction in "computer classes".
While the development of technology skills is seen to have a role in the teaching and learning process, it is more important as an enabler of other teaching and learning practices, and not too important in and of itself. Schools that report the highest levels of student ICT-related skills and experience are often not those with heavy computer course requirements, but rather ones that made use of ICTs on a routine basis throughout the teacher professional development and the teaching and learning process.
Students are more sophisticated in their use of technology than teachers In OECD countries, there appears to be a great disconnect between student knowledge and usage of ICTs the knowledge and abilities of teachers to use ICTs.
This suggests that teacher inexperience and skill deficiencies may often be an important factor inhibiting the effectiveness of ICT use in education by students. Teacher usage of ICTs Teachers most commonly use ICTs for administrative tasks Teachers most often use ICTs for 'routine tasks' record keeping, lesson plan development, information presentation, basic information searches on the Internet.
More knowledgeable teachers rely less on "computer-assisted instruction" Teachers more knowledgeable in ICTs use utilize computer-assisted instruction less than other teachers who use ICTs, but utilize ICTs more overall.
How teachers use ICTs is dependent on their general teaching styles Types of usage of ICTs correlate with teacher pedagogical philosophies. Teachers who use ICTs the most -- and the most effectively -- are less likely to use traditional 'transmission-method' pedagogies.
Teachers who use more types of software tend to practice more "constructivist" pedagogies. Teaching with ICTs takes more time Introducing and using ICTs to support teaching and learning is time-consuming for teachers, both as they attempt to shift pedagogical practices and strategies and when such strategies are used regularly.
Teacher confidence and motivation Few teachers are confident users of ICTs Few teachers are confident in using a wide range of ICT resources, and limited confidence affects the way the lesson is conducted. ICTs motivate some teachers, at least at the start At least initially, exposure to ICTs can be an important motivation tool to promote and enable teacher professional development.
Incentives must be developed to promote effective teacher participation in continuing professional development Teachers require additional motivation and incentives to participate actively in professional development activities. A variety of incentives can be used, including certification, professional advancement, pay increases, paid time off to participate in professional development, formal and informal recognition at the school and community levels and among peers, reduced isolation, and enhanced productivity.
Subject knowledge Teachers' subject knowledge influences how ICTs are used The way ICT is used in lessons is influenced by teacher knowledge about their subjects, and how ICT resources can be utilized and related to it.
Teacher content mastery and understanding of student comprehension make ICT use more effective The evidence shows that when teachers use their knowledge of both the subject and the way pupils understood the subject, their use of ICT has a more direct effect on student achievement.
Teacher professional development On-going teacher training and support is critical to the successful utilization of ICTs in education Teacher training and professional development is seen as the key driver for the successful usage of ICTs in education.
Teacher professional development is a process, not an event Traditional one-time teacher training workshops have not been seen as effective in helping teachers to feel comfortable using ICTs, let alone in integrating it successfully into their teaching.
Discrete, 'one-off' training events are seen as less effective than on-going professional development activities. However, ICTs can be important tools to help meet such increased needs, by helping to provide access to more and better educational content, aid in routine administrative tasks, provide models and simulations of effective teaching practices, and enable learner support networks, both in face to face and distance learning environments, and in real time or asynchronously.
Successful teacher professional development models can be divided into three phases Successful on-going professional development models can be divided into three phases: Effective teacher professional development should model effective teaching practices Effective teacher professional development should approximate the classroom environment as much as possible.
In addition, professional development activities should model effective practices and behaviors and encourage and support collaboration between teachers. Training in assessment methods is important Professional development should include methods for evaluating and modifying pedagogical practices and expose teachers to a variety of assessment methods.APPROACHES TO ICT INTEGRATION IN TEACHER EDUCATION Use of ICT within teacher-training programs around the world is being approached in a number of ways with varying degrees of success.
These approaches were subsequently described, refined and merged into four primary approaches as follows. • The level of effectiveness of educational technology is influenced by the specific student population, the software design, the educator’s role, and the level of student access to the technology.
Computer Education (BS/CE), student prior achievement and sociodemography, teacher training, teacher and student attitudes toward BS/CE. The. Essay on ICT and Education Words 5 Pages ICT has a huge range of functions in education such as; communication, learning tools, administration, information sources and distance learning.
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In more detail we set the scene by auditing and evaluating both provision of ICT in schools and policy initiatives related to its use in supporting school learning and teacher education in East Africa. integration, improve living standards, narrow the digital divide, and improve biodiversity utilisation and management.
The digital divide characterized by highly unequal access to and use of ICT and (ICT literacy) from early stages of education through to tertiary levels. Distance.