Some of these factors are discussed below. The major factor is stigmatization of skin colour from close relatives and the society at large. Especially in the case of a white and a black, there would be a strong impact of stigma and discrimination felt against the black counterpart from the stereotypical whites on the side of the white counterpart or vice versa. If action is not taken to elude this factor, it shall result in ending of the marriage.
Chinese marriage Confucius described marriage as "the union of two surnames, in friendship and in love". Some men also practiced sororate marriagethat is, a marriage to a former wife's sister or a polygynous marriage to both sisters.
This would have the effect of eliminating parallel-cousin marriage as an option, but would leave cross-cousin marriage acceptable. However, enforcement proved difficult and by the subsequent Qing Dynasty, the former laws had been restored.
There are only two clans there Which have intermarried for many generations. Anthropologist Francis Hsu described mother's brother's daughter MBD as being the most preferred type of Chinese cousin marriage, mother's sister's daughter MSD as being tolerated, and father's brother's daughter FBD as being disfavored.
In Chinese culture, these patrilineal ties are most important in determining the closeness of a relation. Finally, one reason that MBD marriage is often most common may be the typically greater emotional warmth between a man and his mother's side of the family.
Cousin marriage in the Middle East Cousin marriage has been allowed throughout the Middle East for all recorded history. Here the girl is not forced to marry her male cousin, but she cannot marry another unless he gives consent.
When the marriage procession progressed with the bride toward the house of the bridegroom, the male cousin rushed forward, snatched away the girl, and forced her into his own house. This was regarded by all as a lawful marriage. Cousin marriage rates were highest among women,[ clarification needed ] merchant families, and older well-established families.
It existed in Medina during Muhammad's time, but at less than today's rates. One source from the s states that cousin marriage was less common in Cairo than in other areas. In traditional Syria-Palestina, if a girl had no paternal male cousin father's brother's son or he renounced his right to her, the next in line was traditionally the maternal male cousin mother's brother's son and then other relatives.
Raphael Patai, however, reported that this custom loosened in the years preceding his study. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations.
He has shown that while a clear functional connection exists between Islam and FBD marriage, the prescription to marry a FBD does not appear to be sufficient to persuade people to actually marry thus, even if the marriage brings with it economic advantages.
According to Korotayev, a systematic acceptance of parallel-cousin marriage took place when Islamization occurred together with Arabization. Muslim Hausa practice cousin marriage preferentially, and polygyny is allowed if the husband can support multiple wives.
She recounts in the book that her good friend married the friend's first cross cousin. These included not only cousin marriages, but also uncle-niece unions. Reportedly, it is a custom that in such marriages at least one spouse must be a relative, and generally such spouses were the preferred or favorite wives in the marriage and gave birth to more children.
However, this was not a general study of Yoruba, but only of highly polygynous Yoruba residing in Oka Akoko. Men are forbidden to marry within their own patrilineage or those of their mother or father's mother and must marry outside their own village.
Igbo are almost entirely Christian, having converted heavily under colonialism. The prospect of a man marrying a former wife's "sister" was seen as incest, and conversely for a woman and her former husband's "brother".
Only Austria, Hungary, and Spain banned cousin marriage throughout the 19th century, with dispensations being available from the government in the last two countries. The writings of Scottish deputy commissioner for lunacy Arthur Mitchell claiming that cousin marriage had injurious effects on offspring were largely contradicted by researchers such as Alan Huth and George Darwin.
Later studies by George Darwin found results that resemble those estimated today. His father, Charles Darwin, who did marry his first cousin, had initially speculated that cousin marriage might pose serious risks, but perhaps in response to his son's work, these thoughts were omitted from a later version of the book they published.
When a question about cousin marriage was eventually considered in for the census, according to George Darwin, it was rejected on the grounds that the idle curiosity of philosophers was not to be satisfied.
Anthropologist Jack Goody said that cousin marriage was a typical pattern in Rome, based on the marriage of four children of Emperor Constantine to their first cousins and on writings by Plutarch and Livy indicating the proscription of cousin marriage in the early Republic. Such marriages carried no social stigma in the late Republic and early Empire.
They cite the example of Cicero attacking Mark Antony not on the grounds of cousin marriage, but instead on grounds of Antony's divorce. Shaw and Saller propose in their thesis of low cousin marriage rates that as families from different regions were incorporated into the imperial Roman nobility, exogamy was necessary to accommodate them and to avoid destabilizing the Roman social structure.
Their data from tombstones further indicate that in most of the western empire, parallel-cousin marriages were not widely practiced among commoners, either. Jack Goody claimed that early Christian marriage rules forced a marked change from earlier norms to deny heirs to the wealthy and thus to increase the chance that those with wealth would will their property to the Church.
Shaw and Saller, however, believe that the estates of aristocrats without heirs had previously been claimed by the emperor, and that the Church merely replaced the emperor.Introduction An interracial marriage is a marriage between members of different races, known as as Mixed marriage: marriage of two people from different races or different religions or different cultures.
Miscegenation: reproduction by parents of different races (especially by white and non-white persons). [Edit 3/ I no longer endorse all the statements in this document.
I think many of the conclusions are still correct, but especially section 1 is weaker than it should be, and many reactionaries complain I am pigeonholing all of them as agreeing with Michael Anissimov, which they do .
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