Evidence-based practice indicates the universal need for the implementation of better maternal and newborn infant care, especially with regard to breastfeeding support and encouragement.
The theorizing about population population size and change have remained an important subject since time immemorial. Many of the ancient philosophers like Confucius ChinaKautilya IndiaIbn Khaldin ArabPlato Greece and modem thinkers like Adam Smith, David Richard and others, eidier directly or indirectly, have said somewhat significant on population issues.
The Chinese philosopher, Confucius argued that a numerical balance be maintained between population and environment. Thus, he was not in favour of unchecked growth of population.
He was the first who gave the concept of optimum population level. In ancient Greece, the earliest thinkers favoured the expansion of population, but Plato was a restrictionist who advocated as absolute limit of population.
But, as a science, it emerged only in the last years. The systematic compilation of data was first begun on a large scale in the 19th century Europe. Thomas Robert Malthus was the key figure to analyse the population statistics. His formulation on population was a landmark in the history of population theories.
He generalized the relationship between population factors and social change. In his Essay on the Principle of Population Malthus argued that because of the strong attraction of the two sexes, the population could increase by multiples, doubling every twenty-five years.
He contended that the population would eventually grow so large that food production would be insufficient. Human capacity for reproduction exceeded the rate at which subsistence from the land can be increased.
He argued that the food supply increases in an arithmetic progression 1, 2, 3, 4, and so onwhereas the population Overpopulation infant mortality and life expectancy essay by a geometric progression 1, 2, 4, 8, and so on.
According to him, the population could increase by multiples, doubling every twenty-five years. He said the gap between the food supply and population will continue to grow over time. Even though food supply will increase, it would be insufficient to meet the needs of expanding population.
In brief, Malthus theory states that: Population is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence.
Population invariably increases where means of subsistence increased, unless prevented by some very powerful and obvious checks. These checks, and the checks which repress the superior power of population and keep its effects on a level with the means of subsistence, are all resolvable into moral restraint, vice and misery.
It was the second which led people to marry at a relatively early age and would result in such a large number of births that the population would double itself in few years if unchecked by misery and vice.
Malthus referred to two classes of checks which kept population down: He spoke of famine hungerdisease or war, pestilence and vicious customs about women.
He explicitly demanded artificial means of birth control and suggested as an alternative that birth rate be decreased through preventive measures such as late marriage postponing marriage until later agemoral restraint, and chastity abstinence. He contended that without such restraints the world would face widespread hunger, poverty and misery.
Malthus saw the tension between population and resources as a major cause of the misery of much of the humanity. He was not, however, in favour of contraceptive methods, since their use did not generate the same drive to work hard as would a postponement of marriage.
Malthus argued that the positive and preventive checks are inversely related to each other. In other words, where positive checks are very effective, the preventive checks are relatively less effective and vice versa. However, in all societies, some of these checks are in constant operation although in varying magnitude of effectiveness.
Malthus believed that despite these checks, the inability of increased food supply to keep abreast of population increase always results in some kind of a situation of overpopulation.
The validity of his two sets of ratios has been questioned by his critics. It is argued that population has rarely grown in geometrical proportion and means of production have rarely multiplied in arithmetic progression. Neo-Malthusists argued for the adoption of birth control within marriage.
Human inventions in the fields of birth control, health and nutrition and agriculture have helped to a great extent to strike a balance between human reproduction and food supply. Malthus was also severely criticized for ignoring the role of changing technology and the consequent transformation in socio-economic set-up of a society.
He did not fully appreciate the extent to which improved agricultural technology and crop fertilization could sustain large population. Neo-Malthusians agree that there are absolute limits on food supply, energy and other resources.
Furthermore, they suggest that the problem is intensified by the disproportionate consumption of such resources by so-called developed industrialized actions.
Yet none would deny that starvation is a very real fact even in Life expectancy: The life expectancy of both males and females has continued to increase over the years.
Whereas in women in Pakistan lived to the age of years, in women were expected to live 17 years more. Overpopulation and Environmental Degradation At the time of the agricultural revolution, nearly ten thousand years ago, the population of the globe was no more than ten million.
Today the world population is estimated at over six billion. Another measure, such as life expectancy at age 5 (e 5), can be used to exclude the effect of infant mortality to provide a simple measure of overall mortality rates other than in early childhood; in the hypothetical population above, life expectancy at 5 would be another Aggregate population measures, such as the proportion of the.
Mar 29, · Occasionally, life expectancy at age 1 actually exceeds that at birth, if infant mortality rates are extraordinarily high within a given population.
Life expectancy usually declines with age. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, in life expectancy at birth for both men and women of all races in the United States was . In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population..
Global human population growth amounts to around 83 million annually, or % per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in to billion in It is expected to keep growing, and estimates have put the total population at billion by mid, billion.
Having one fewer child is the most effective way an individual would have to fight climate change. The next best actions are selling your car, avoiding long flights, and eating a vegetarian diet, according to a study published in Environmental Research Letters.