It was in pursuance of this aim that both the various state and local government edicts and the for the schedule of the constitution of Nigeria assigned functions to local governments.
Look up politics and government in Wiktionarythe free dictionary. A government is the body that has the power to make and enforce laws within an organization or group. In its broadest sense, "to govern" means to administer or supervise, whether over an area of land, a set group of people, or a collection of assets.
Definitions[ edit ] One approach is to define government as the dominant on top better decision-making arm of the stateand define the latter on the basis of the control it has over violence and the use of force within its territory. Specifically, the state and by extension the government has been considered by some to be the entity that holds a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within a territory.
This view has been taken by the political economist Max Weber and subsequent political philosophers. If we use the term in an ethical sense, then this definition would suggest that an organisation might be considered a state by its supporters but not by its detractors.
An alternative definition is to take "legitimate" violence to be simply that which has active or tacit acceptance by the vast majority of the population. In this view, the presence of insurrection or civil war against an entity would jeopardise its claim to be a state, provided the insurrection enjoyed significant popular support.
In practice, such situations are often described as " failed states ". Government can also be defined as the political means of creating and enforcing laws ; typically via a bureaucratic hierarchy.
Under this definition, a purely despotic organization which controls a territory without defining laws would not be considered a government. Another alternative is to define a government as an organisation that attempts to maintain control of a territorywhere "control" involves activities such as collecting taxescontrolling entry and exit to the state, preventing encroachment of territory by neighbouring states and preventing the establishment of alternative governments within the country.
In Commonwealth Englishthe word "Government" can also be used to refer only to the executive branchin this context being a synonym for the word "administration" in American English e. In countries using the Westminster systemthe Government or party in Government will also usually control the legislature.
The French use of the word gouvernement covers both meanings, whereas Canadian French generally uses it to mean the executive branch. The German word Regierung refers only to government as the executive branch; the wider meaning of the word, government as a system, can be translated as Staatsgewalt.
Forms of government[ edit ] Various forms of government have been implemented.
A government in a developed state is likely to have various sub-organisations known as offices, departments, or agencies, which are headed by politically appointed officials, often called ministers or secretaries.
Ministers may in theory act as advisors to the head of statebut in practice have a certain amount of direct power in specific areas. In most modern democraciesthe elected legislative assembly has the power to dismiss the government, but in those states that have a separate head of government and head of statethe head of state generally has great latitude in appointing a new one.
Theories[ edit ] There are a wide range of theories about the reasons for establishing governments. The four major ones are briefly described below. Note that they do not always fully oppose each other - it is possible for a person to subscribe to a combination of ideas from two or more of these theories.
Greed and oppression[ edit ] Many political philosophies that are opposed to the existence of a government such as Anarchismand to a lesser extent Marxismas well as others, emphasize the historical roots of governments - the fact that governments, along with private propertyoriginated from the authority of warlords and petty despots who took, by force, certain patches of land as their own and began exercising authority over the people living on that land.Islamic republic - a particular form of government adopted by some Muslim states; although such a state is, in theory, a theocracy, it remains a republic, but its laws are required to be.
The Concept of Local Government The concept of local government involves a philosophical commitment to democratic participation in the governing process at the grassroots level.
This implies legal and administrative decentralisation of authority, power and personnel by a higher level of government to a community with a will of its own, performing specific functions as within the wider .
Federalism is a hierarchical system of government under which two levels of government exercise a range of control over the same geographic area.
This system of exclusive and shared powers is the opposite of "centralized" forms of governments, such as those in England and France, under which the national government maintains exclusive power. Stakeholder Management in the Local Government Decision-Making Area: Evidences from a Triangulation Study with the English Local Stakeholder Management in the Local Government Decision-Making Area Stakeholder Management in the Local Government .
recommendations for local government based on this theory propose actions attracting investors competitive in domestic and international markets that operate in the economy or service sectors supporting technological modernisation.
Malizia and Feser () emphasise the primary importance of supporting export activities of regional producers. Given these developments, the theory and practice of federalism are confronted with new challenges and questions, including the following: local government as a full partner in a federal system of government would enhance the structural relationship between the three spheres of government.